The artists the generation following the Renaissance masters—in the late 1500s onward—had to either try to imitate the masters by copying their techniques or innovate novel ways. This was called the Mannerist Era because some artists chose to paint “in the manner of” the older masters while others like Caravaggio and Giorgione established bold new uses of light and perspective.
Artistic styles in the West coalesced into two different schools of thought. One school was conservative and held that the only classical subject matter—religious themes, Greek or Roman mythological characters—were valid subjects for art and that painting had to follow established methods of composition and brushwork. The work of Annibale Carracci (1560-1609) is an example. The other school of thought, pioneered by “naturalist” painters such as Caravaggio (1571-1610), held that ordinary subject matter and the roughness of real life were valid artistic subject matter and that refined techniques of paint application, color and composition were not the only “correct” ways to paint. From about 1600 to the mid-1800s artists and appreciators of art debated these artistic philosophies. The classical school held the power to dictate what art was worthy of serious collectors via the official French “academy” that judged what was acceptable for the art marketplace, and the academy decidedly favored the conservative classical approach.
The Baroque era built on the novel techniques of the naturalists to introduce elements into art and architecture that had no parallel in ancient works. Baroque means “strange”; this name was applied after the era as a disparaging term but has persisted to identify the era. The most extreme examples of Baroque art and architecture combined Greek and Roman forms in ways that were never done in the ancient world. These works are theatrically ornate and many are associated with the Counter-Reformation, a movement by the Roman Catholic church to "compete" with the Protestant Reformation by heavily decorating churches to represent what it was thought heaven might look like: lavish and gilded.
The stranglehold on what constituted “valid” artistic style and content was finally broken by two factors: the invention and refinement of photography from 1839 onward and the constant pressure of bold and innovative artists who challenged the old ways. It was surprising to some people that the art-loving public—which was probably bored with the "stuffy" old style and primed for revolt by the revolutionary political scene of the mid-1800s—so rapidly accepted and embraced the new non-classical “Impressionist” style of painting of the 1870's. That break led the way to the many new movements in Art Nouveau and abstract art that quickly followed in the 1890's and the 20th century.
to do... just follow these steps as listed!
The steps here are grouped according to what I would cover in class sessions. I suggest that you do each session as a separate "sitting" as if you were preparing for a class session on the indicated material. The only difference is that what I would have said in a class lecture is already available to you in video form and you can "attend" the class session at whatever time of day is convenient to you!
Note: The assigned reading for this unit includes material from the assigned textbook, The Story of Art, as well as from the course workbook, The Historical Foundations of Visual Technology, 4th edition. You can download the full workbook at the course "startup" web page. If you prefer however to download just the workbook pages that are associated with Unit 4 of the course, you may download these 51 pages by clicking on this link.
TO START: Click here to download the USF4 form. Print it and use it to take notes as you read and view. Then use the downloaded copy to edit it and insert the information about art purpose, rules, technology, and impact. If you do this you will be working in the way intended, and you will find that you are most productive in this class!
Session 19: CHAPTER 19 -- VISION AND VISIONS -- Catholic Europe, AD 1600 to 1650
Read Chapter 19 of The Story of Art and view video
Read workbook pages 125-27, Intro to Unit 4
Read workbook page 128, Background: the 17th Century (AD 1600-1700) and view video;
Note: the video associated with workbook page 128 is extremely important to your
development of a comprehensive view of history! Please make sure you view this!
Session 20: CHAPTER 20 -- THE MIRROR OF NATURE -- Holland, AD 1600 to 1700
Read Chapter 20 of The Story of Art and view video
Read workbook pages 129-30, The Dutch Golden Age (AD 1650-1700) and view video
Session 21: CHAPTER 21 -- POWER & GLORY I -- Italy, AD 1650 to 1790
Read Chapter 21 of The Story of Art and view video
Read workbook pages 131-32, Artmisia Gentileschi: Italian female Baroque artist and view video
Session 22: CHAPTER 22 -- POWER & GLORY II -- France,Germany,Aust. AD 1650 to 1750
Read Chapter 22 of The Story of Art and view video
Read workbook page 133, Hierarchy of genres and view web link
Session 23: CHAPTER 23 -- THE AGE OF REASON -- England, France, AD 1700 to 1800
Read Chapter 23 of The Story of Art and view video
Read workbook pages 134-39, The Enlightenment and view video
Session 24: CH. 24 -- BREAK IN TRADITION -- England,America,France AD 1750 to 1850
Read Chapter 24 of The Story of Art and view video
Read workbook pages 140-41, Romanticism and the Romantic Era and view video
An unusual component of artist's colorants read online
Session 25: CHAPTER 25 -- PERMANENT REVOLUTION -- AD 1800 to 1900
Read Chapter 25 of The Story of Art and view video
Read work book pages 142-44, Political revolutions of 1848 and view video
Read work book pages 145-51, Photography from 1827 to 1900 and view video
Read work book page 152, Autochromes: the first color photographs and view video
Read work book page 153-54, Photograph printing in newspapers and magazines and view video
Read work book page 155-62, Colorants and paint in the Baroque and beyond
Read work book page 163-64, The Arts and Crafts Movement and view video
Read work book page 165-66, Symmetry as a composition technique and view video
Two assignments are due for Unit 4...
Unit Summary Form 4 CLICK HERE TO WATCH A REVIEW LECTURE ON THIS!
The editable USF4 form you see on workbook pages 126 and 127 needs to be completed and submitted. You downloaded this from the link at the top of this web page. That download provided you with a copy of the form you can use with your word processor. Type up your notes using the editable USF file and submit that document file in electronic form. Submit your completed (word-processed) file to the dedicated course gmail address. I will give you a score and feedback. You can then revise your USF4 using my feedback and resubmit it for re-grading if it needs "perfecting".
Project 4: Symmetry and the Scientific Perspectives
Read and explore workbook pages 165 through 174. Review workbook page 90. There are three separate parts to this project:
Part 1: Looking for symmetry; read workbook pages 165-68 and this link: Help
Part 2: Examples of scientific perspective; read workbook page 169 and these links: Example Galleries
Part 3: Intro to your take-home final: Conclusions Work; read workbook pages 170-74 and download this
(Click those four links to download information or forms for this work.) Complete all three parts of the project. Submit your work for grading as directed in these instructions. Submit parts of the project as you complete them if you wish, I can give you feedback faster that way! As with the USFs I will give you a score and feedback and you can revise this using my feedback and resubmit it for re-grading.
An optional extra credit project for Unit 4 is located on workbook pages 175. If you find the subject matter of this unit interesting you may enjoy going farther in exploring photography with this extra credit.
** Note that you have available an optional slide download for chapters 19-25 in 3-up form as a .pdf file for note-taking